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Peanut Rotation Study

Posted May 1, 2000

Over the years, the Noble Research Institute Agricultural Division has conducted many applied research and demonstration studies to assist growers and producers with resource management strategies that will result in more economical production.

Peanuts are susceptible to a host of foliar and soil-borne diseases. Peanut fields rotated with other crops are generally less susceptible to diseases, weeds, and insects. Yields and quality usually improve with rotations. In 1990, a cooperative project between the Noble Research Institute and Oklahoma State University was initiated on the Red River Demonstration and Research Farm near Burneyville, Oklahoma, to (1) evaluate the effects and benefits of rotating peanuts with corn, grain sorghum, and cotton compared with continual peanuts and (2) document the results for the Southwest.

Dr. Ron Sholar of Oklahoma State University, the lead investigator in this study, has summarized the results through the 1999 growing season. General information and some of the more notable results from his report follow.

First Cycle, 1990-1995: General Results
The rotation is a long-term study that will be continued through the 2001 growing season to complete two full six-year cycles. The study was established on land that had not been planted to peanuts in the previous fourteen years. The first cycle, 1990-1995, included corn, grain sorghum, and cotton planted according to long-term rotation plans with two peanut varieties, Spanco and Okrun. Despite the fact that this field had been out of peanuts for many years, the results showed that by 1993 peanut yields were declining after only four years of continual peanuts compared with one or two years in a rotation crop before planting peanuts.

1995First Cycle Completed
In 1995 and in all subsequent years of the study, the experiment included fungicide treatments to allow the effects of Bravo alone to be compared with Bravo + Folicur across each rotation treatment and variety. In 1995, all plots were planted to peanuts to evaluate the effect of all crop rotations in the study. Other measurements such as total sound mature kernels were made, but there were no statistical differences as a result of crop rotations. There were significant variety differences for yield in each year of the study, and results for each variety are reported and summarized separately.

Spanco

  • After six years, yields in continual peanuts were lower than that of rotated crops.
  • All rotations averaged 3,824 pounds per acre in Bravo + Folicur treatments compared with 3,698 pounds per acre in Bravo + Folicur-treated continual peanuts.
  • For Bravo-only treatments, all rotations averaged 3,492 pounds per acre compared with 2,991 pounds per acre in continual peanuts.
  • The highest yielding rotation was the two-year cotton-one-year peanut rotation, which increased yields by 311 pounds per acre (4,009 versus 3,698) compared with that of continual peanuts where Bravo + Folicur was used.
  • In the Bravo-only treatments, the highest yield was from a two-year corn-one-year peanut rotation, which increased yields by 715 pounds per acre (3,706 versus 2,991) compared with that of continual peanuts.
  • When the best rotation, two-year corn-one-year peanuts and Bravo + Folicur, were combined, yields increased by 1,018 pounds per acre (4,009 versus 2,991) over that of continual peanuts treated with Bravo alone.

 

Okrun

  • After six years, yields in the continual plots continued to decline compared with that of the rotations, but less dramatically than in previous years.
  • All crop rotations averaged 3,713 pounds per acre in Bravo + Folicur treatments compared with 3,604 pounds per acre in continual peanuts with the same fungicide treatment.
  • All crop rotations averaged 3,413 pounds per acre in Bravo-only plots compared with 3,092 pounds per acre in continual peanuts treated alike.
  • The highest yielding rotation was the two-year corn-one-year peanut, with yield increases of 574 pounds per acre (4,178 versus 3,604) compared with that of continual peanuts where Bravo + Folicur was used and 555 pounds per acre (3,647 versus 3,092) with the Bravo-only treatment.
  • When the two-year corn-one-year peanut rotation and Bravo + Folicur were combined, yields increased by 1,086 pounds per acre (4,178 versus 3,092) over that of continual peanuts with Bravo alone.

 

Second Cycle (Ends in 2001), 1996-1999:
General Results for 1999 Only

Spanco

  • In 1999, rotation benefits were lower than in preceding years. After ten years, yields in continual peanuts were exceeded by only one crop rotation treatment. A two-year corn-one-year peanut rotation increased yields by 217 pounds per acre (3,442 versus 3,225) compared with that of continual peanuts where Bravo alone was used and by 102 pounds per acre (3,668 versus 3,566) where Folicur was used.
  • Folicur increased yields by 341 pounds per acre (3,566 versus 3,225) in continual peanuts and by 226 pounds per acre (3,668 versus 3,442) with a two-year corn-one-year peanut rotation.
  • When a two-year corn-one-year peanut rotation and Bravo + Folicur were combined, yields were increased by 443 pounds per acre (3,668 versus 3,225) over that of continual peanuts and Bravo alone.

 

Okrun

  • After ten years, yields in the continual peanut plots continued to decline compared with yields in rotations, but less dramatically than in previous years.
  • A one-year cotton-one-year peanut rotation increased yields by 756 pounds per acre (3,465 versus 2,709) compared with that of continual peanuts where Bravo alone was used and by 640 pounds per acre (3,894 versus 3,254) where Bravo + Folicur was used.
  • Bravo + Folicur increased yields by 545 pounds per acre (3,254 versus 2,709) in continual peanuts and by 429 pounds per acre (3,894 versus 3,465) with a one-year cotton-one-year peanut rotation.
  • When a one-year cotton-one-year peanut rotation and Bravo + Folicur were combined, yields were increased by 1,185 pounds per acre (3,894 versus 2,709) over that of continual peanuts and Bravo alone.

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