Beaver damage concerns more landowners than damage caused by any other native wildlife species in Oklahoma. No pesticides, toxicants or fumigants are registered with the Environmental Protection Agency for beaver control. Trapping and shooting are the most effective lethal control techniques. Conibear traps are probably the most effective beaver traps. Beavers are primarily nocturnal so effective shooting generally must occur at night. Landowners and the general public cannot legally use conibear traps or shoot beavers at night in Oklahoma without attending a special course and obtaining a Nuisance Beaver Control Permit from the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation.