1. Staff

Carolyn Young, Ph.D. Publications

Publication List

Buckley, H., Young, C. A., Charlton, N. D., Hendricks, W. Q., Haley, B., Nagabhyru, P. & Rudgers, J. A. (2018). Leaf endophytes mediate fertilizer effects on plant yield and traits in northern oat grass (Trisetum spicatum). Plant and Soil, (Epub ahead of print), doi: 10.1007/s11104-018-3848-6.

Winter, D. J, Ganley, A. R., Young, C. A., Liachko, I., Schardi, C. L., Dupont, P-Y, Berry, D., Ram, A., Scott, B. & Cox, M. (2018). Repeat elements organise 3D genome structure and mediate transcription in the filamentous fungus Epichloë festucae. PLoS Genetics, 14 (10), e1007467 doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1007467.

Bushman, B.S., Singh, D., Lamp, R., Young, C. A., Charlton, N. D., Robins, J. G. & Anderson, N. P. (2018). Variation among orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) germplasm for choke prevalence caused by Epichloë typhina. Plant Disease, (Epub ahead of print), https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-05-18-0867-RE.

Trammell, M. A., Butler, T. J., Young, C. A., Widdup, K., Amadeo, J., Hopkins, A. A., Nyaupane, N. P. & Biermacher, J. T. (2018). Registration of ‘Chisholm’ Summer-Dormant Tall Fescue. Journal of Plant Registrations, , doi:10.3198/jpr2018.01.0001crc.

Mattupalli, C., Moffet, C., Shah , K. N. & Young, C. A. (2018). Supervised classification of RGB aerial imagery to evaluate the impact of a root rot disease. Remote Sensing, 10 (6), 917 doi:10.3390/rs10060917.

Young, C. A. & Mattupalli, C. (2018). Stalking a root rot disease from the sky. Noble News & Views, June 1, pg. 10-11.

Bock, C., Young, C. A., Stevenson, K. & Charlton, N. D. (2018). Fine scale population genetic structure and within tree distribution of mating types of Venturia effusa, cause of pecan scab in the U.S.A. Phytopathology, (epub ahead of print), https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-02-18-0068-R .

Young, C. A., Bock, C., Charlton, N. D., Mattupalli, C. & Krom, N. (2018). Evidence for sexual reproduction: identification, frequency and spatial distribution of Venturia effusa (pecan scab) mating type idiomorphs . Phytopathology, 108 (7), 837-846 doi:10.1094/PHYTO-07-17-0233-R.

Yi, M., Hendricks, W. Q., Kaste, J., Charlton, N. D., Nagabhyru, P., Panaccione, D. G. & Young, C. A. (2018). Molecular identification and characterization of endophytes from uncultivated barley. Mycologia, 110 (3), 453-472 doi: 10.1080/00275514.2018.1464818.

Shi, C., An, S., Yao, Z., Young, C. A., Panaccione, D. G., Lee, S. T., Schardi, C. L. & Li, C. (2018). Toxin-producing Epichloe bromicola strains symbiotic with the forage grass Elymus dahuricus in China. Mycologia, 109 (6), 847-859 doi:10.1080/00275514.2018.1426941.

Young, C. A. & Charlton, N. D. (2018). How to identify and control pecan scab. Noble News & Views, April 2, pg.1-2.

Mysore, K. S., Young, C. A. & Kankanala, P. (2018). Soil microbes can suppress plant disease. Noble News & Views, 36 (3), 8.

Mitic, M., Berry, D., Brasell, E., Green, K., Young, C. A., Saikia, S., Rakonjac, J. & Scott, B. (2017). Disruption of calcineurin catalytic subunit (cnaA) in Epichloë festucae induces symbiotic defects and intrahyphal hyphae formation. Molecular Plant Pathology, 19 (6), 1414-1426 doi:10.1111/mpp.12624.

Shymanovich, T., Charlton, N. D., Musso, A. M., Scheerer, J., Cech, N. B., Faeth, S. H. & Young, C. A. (2017). Interspecific and intraspecific hybrid epichloë species symbiotic with the North American native grass poa alsodes. Mycologia, 109 (3), 459-474 doi: 10.1080/00275514.2017.1340779.

Bastias, D. A., Ueno, A. C., Machado-Assefh, C. R., Alvarez, A. E., Young, C. A. & Gundel, P. E. (2017). Metabolism or behavior: explaining the performance of aphids on alkaloid-producing fungal endophytes in annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum). Oecologia, 185 (2), 245-256 doi: 10.1007/s00442-017-3940-2.

Sneck, M. E., Rudgers, J., Young, C. A. & Miller, T. E. (2017). Variation in the Prevalence and Transmission of Heritable Symbionts Across Host Populations in Heterogeneous Environments. Microbial Ecology, 74 (3), 640-653 doi:10.1007/s00248-017-0964-4.

Bock, C., Hotchkiss, M., Young, C. A., Charlton, N. D., Mattupalli, C., Stevenson, K. & Wood, B. W. (2017). Population Genetic Structure of Venturia effusa, Cause of Pecan Scab, in the Southeastern United States. Phytopathology, 107 (5), 607-619 doi: 10.1094/PHYTO-10-16-0376-R.

Young, C. A. & Kinkel, L. (2017). Welcome to Phytobiomes. Phytobiomes Journal, 1 (1), 3-4 doi:10.1094/PBIOMES-12-16-0018-E.

Saikkonen, K., Young, C. A., Helander, M. & Schardi, C. L. (2016). Endophytic Epichloë species and their grass hosts: from evolution to applications. Plant Molecular Biology, 90 (6), 665-675 doi: 10.1007/s11103-015-0399-6.

Rogers, J. K., Walker, N. R. & Young, C. A. (2016). The Effect of Endophytic Fungi on Nematode Populations in Summer-dormant and Summer-active Tall Fescue . Journal OF Nematology , 48 (2), 87-94.

Young, C. A. & Rogers, J. K. (2016). Alliance offers 1-day tall fescue renovation schools. Ag News and Views, 34 (3), 2.

Pirelli, G. J., Anderson, N. P., Craig, A. M. & Young, C. A. (2016). Endophyte Toxins in Grass and Other Feed Sources: Risks to Livestock. Oregon State University Extension Service, , EM 9156.

Rudgers, J., Fletcher, R. A., Olivas, E., Young, C. A., Charlton, N. D., Pearson, D. E. & Maron, J. L. (2016). Long-term ungulate exclusion reduces fungal symbiont prevalence in native grasslands. Oecologia, 181 (4), 1151–1161 doi:10.1007/s00442-016-3620-7.

Saikkonen, K., Young, C. A., Helander, M. & Schardi, C. L. (2015). Endophytic Epichloë species and their grass hosts: from evolution to applications. Plant Molecular Biology, 90 (6), 665-675 doi: 10.1007/s11103-015-0399-6.

Kazenel, M. R., Debban, C. L., Ranelli, L., Hendricks, W. Q., Chung, Y. A., Pendergast, IV, T. H., Charlton, N. D., Young, C. A. & Rudgers, J. A. (2015). A mutualistic endophyte alters the niche dimensions of its host plant . AoB Plants, 7 (plv005), doi:10.1093/aobpla/plv005.

Saikkonen, K., Young, C. A., Helander, M. & Schardl, C. L. (2015). Endophytic Epichloë species and their grass hosts: from evolution to applications. Plant Molecular Biology, 90 (6), 665-675 doi: 10.1007/s11103-015-0399-6.

Chen, L., Li, X., Li, C., Swoboda, G. A., Young, C. A., Sugawara, K., Leuchtmann, A. & Schardl, C. L. (2015). Two distinct Epichloë species symbiotic with Achnatherum inebrians, drunken horse grass. Mycologia, 107 (4), 863-873 doi: 10.3852/15-019.

Young, C. A., Schardl, C. L., Panaccione, D. G., Florea, S., Takach, J. E., Charlton, N. D., Moore, N., Webb, J. S. & Jaromczyk, J. (2015). Genetics, genomics and evolution of ergot alkaloid diversity. Toxins, 7 (4), 1273-1302 doi:10.3390/toxins7041273.

Shoji, J., Charlton, N. D., Yi, M., Young, C. A. & Craven, K. D. (2015). Vegetative hyphal fusion and subsequent nuclear behavior in epichloë grass endophytes. PLoS ONE, 10 (4), e0121875 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0121875.

Berry, D., Takach, J. E., Schardl, C. L., Charlton, N. D., Scott, B. & Young, C. A. (2015). Disparate independent genetic events disrupt the secondary metabolism gene perA in certain symbiotic epichloë species. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 81 (8), 2797-2807 doi: 10.1128/AEM.03721-14.

Talukder, S. K., Azhaguvel, P., Mukherjee, S., Young, C. A., Tang, Y., Krom, N. & Saha, M. C. (2015). De novo assembly and characterization of tall fescue transcriptome under water stress. Plant Genome, 8 (2), doi:10.3835/plantgenome2014.09.0050.

Young, C. A., Rogers, J. K. & Baughmann, T. (2014). Cotton root rot inhibits alfalfa stand longevity. Ag News and Views, 32 (7), 7.

Rogers, J. K. & Young, C. A. (2014). Alliance provides seed quality control. Ag News and Views, 32 (12), 1.

Shymanovich, T., Saari, S., Lovin, M. E., Jarmusch, A. K., Jarmusch, S. A., Musso, A. M., Charlton, N. D., Young, C. A., Cech, N. B. & Faeth, S. H. (2014). Alkaloid variation among epichloid endophytes of sleepygrass (Achnatherum robustum) and consequences for resistance to insect herbivores. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 41 (1), 93-104 doi: 10.1007/s10886-014-0534-x.

Young, C. A., Uppalapati, S. R., Mysore, K. S. & Marek, S. M. (2014). Phymatotrichopsis Root Rot. In D. Samac, L. Rhodes, and W. Lamp (Eds.), Compendium of Alfalfa Diseases and Pests, Third Edition. (pp. 44-46). St. Paul, MN: APS Press.

Young, C. A., Charlton, N. D., Takach, J. E., Swoboda, G. A., Trammell, M. A., Huhman, D. V. & Hopkins, A. A. (2014). Characterization of Epichloë coenophiala within the U.S.: are all tall fescue endophytes created equal? Frontiers in Chemistry, 2 (95), doi: 10.3389/fchem.2014.00095.

Rogers, J. K., Young, C. A., Mosali, J., Norton, S. & Hopkins, A. A. (2014). Stockpiled forage yield and nutritive value of summer-dormant and summer-active tall fescue in a marginal environment. Forage and Grazinglands, 12, 1 doi: 10.2134/FG-2014-0065-RS.

Charlton, N. D., Craven, K. D., Afkhami, M. E., Hall, B. A., Ghimire, S. R. & Young, C. A. (2014). Interspecific hybridization and bioactive alkaloid variation increases diversity in endophytic Epichloë species of Bromus laevipes. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 90 (1), 276-289 doi: 10.1111/1574-6941.12393.

Beck, P., Stewart, C. B., Gray, H. C., Gadberry, M. S., Gunter, S. A., Young, C. A. & Hopkins, A. A. (2014). Using tall fescue in a complementary grazing program for spring-calving beef cows in southern Arkansas. Professional Animal Scientist, 30 (4), 423-431 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15232/pas.2013-01300.

Arif, M., Dobhal, S., Garrido, P., Orquera, G. K., Espíndola, A. S., Young, C. A., Ochoa Corona, F. M., Marek, S. M. & Garzón, C. D. (2014). Highly sensitive end-point PCR and SYBR green qPCR detection of Phymatotrichopsis omnivora, causal fungus of cotton root rot. Plant Disease, 98 (9), 1205-1212 doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-05-13-0505-RE.

Schardl, C. L., Young, C. A., Moore, N., Krom, N., Dupont, P-Y, Pan, J., Florea, S., Webb, J. S., Jaromczyk, J., Jaromczyk, J. W., Cox, M. & Farman, M. L. (2014). Chapter Ten – Genomes of Plant-Associated Clavicipitaceae. In Martin, F. M. (Ed.), Advances in Botanical Research. (pp. 291-327). INRA Centre de Nancy, Centre de Nancy, Champenoux,: Academic Press Inc..

Schardl, C. L., Chen, L. & Young, C. A. (2014). Fungal endophytes of grasses and morning glories, and their bioprotective alkaloids. In A. Osbourn, R. J. Goss, and G. T. Carter (Eds.), Natural Products: Discourse, Diversity, and Design. (pp. 125-145). Oxford, U. K.: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Takach, J. E. & Young, C. A. (2014). Alkaloid genotype diversity of tall fescue endophytes. Crop Science, 54 (2), 667-678 doi:10.2135/cropsci2013.06.0423.

Pan, J., Bhardwaj, M., Faulkner, J. R., Nagabhyru, P., Charlton, N. D., Higashi, R. M., Miller, A-F, Young, C. A., Grossman, R. B. & Schardl, C. L. (2014). Ether bridge formation in loline alkaloid biosynthesis. Phytochemistry, 98, 60-68 doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2013.11.015.

Scott, B., Young, C. A., Saikia, S., McMillan, L., Monahan, B. J., Koulman, A., Astin, J., Eaton, C. J., Bryant, A., Wrenn, R. E., Finch, S. C., Tapper, B. A., Parker, E. J. & Jameson, G. B. (2013). Deletion and gene expression analyses define the paxilline biosynthetic gene cluster in Penicillium paxilli. Toxins, 5 (8), 1422-1446 doi:10.3390/toxins5081422.

Schardl, C. L., Young, C. A., Pan, J., Florea, S., Takach, J. E., Panaccione, D. G., Farman, M. L., Webb, J. S., Jaromczyk, J., Charlton, N. D., Nagabhyru, P., Chen, L., Shi, C. & Leuchtmann, A. (2013). Currencies of Mutualisms: Sources of Alkaloid Genes in Vertically Transmitted Epichloae. Toxins, 5 (6), 1064-1088 doi:10.3390/toxins5061064.

Parish, J. A., Parish, J. R., Best, T. F., Boland, H. T. & Young, C. A. (2013). Effects of selected endophyte and tall fescue cultivar combinations on steer grazing performance, indicators of fescue toxicosis, feedlot performance, and carcass traits. Journal of Animal Science, 91 (1), 342-355 doi:10.2527/jas.2011-4725.

Young, C. A., Hume, D. E. & McCulley, R. L. (2013). FORAGES AND PASTURES SYMPOSIUM: Fungal endophytes of tall fescue and perennial ryegrass: pasture friend or foe? Journal of Animal Science, 91 (5), 2379–2394 doi:10.2527/jas.2012-5951.

Schardl, C. L., Young, C. A., Hesse, U., Amyotte, S. G., Andreeva, K. A., Calie, P. J., Fleetwood, D. J., Haws, D. C., Moore, N., Oeser, B., Panaccione, D. G., Schweri, K. K., Voisey, C. R., Farman, M. L., Jaromczyk, J. W., Roe, B. A., O'Sullivan, D. M., Scott, B., Tudzynski, P., An, Z., Arnaoudova, E. G., Bullock, C. T., Charlton, N. D., Chen, L., Cox, M., Dinkins, R., Florea, S., Glenn, A. E., Gordon, A., Guldener, U., Harris, D. R., Hollin, W., Jaromczyk, J., Johnson, R. D., Khan, A. K., Leistner, E., Leuchtmann, A., Li, C., Liu, J., Liu, J., Liu, M., Mace, W., Machado, C., Nagabhyru, P., Pan, J., Schmid, J., Sugawara, K., Steiner, U., Takach, J. E., Tanaka, E., Webb, J. S., Wilson, E. V., Wiseman, J. L., Yoshida, R. & Zeng, Z. (2013). Plant-symbiotic fungi as chemical engineers: Multi-genome analysis of the Clavicipitaceae reveals dynamics of alkaloid loci. PLoS Genetics, 9 (2), e1003323 doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1003323.

Young, C. A., Aiken, G. E., McCulley, R. L., Strickland, B. & Schardl, C. L. (2012). Epichloae, endophytes of cool season grasses: Implications, utilization and biology. .

Singh, R., Interrante, S. M., Butler, T. J. & Young, C. A. (2012). Characterization and effectiveness of co-inoculation of Sinorhizobium strains on annual medics. Crop Science, 52 (2), 932-942 doi:10.2135/cropsci2011.08.0459.

Takach, J. E., Mittal, S., Swoboda, G. A., Bright, S. K., Trammell, M. A., Hopkins, A. A. & Young, C. A. (2012). Genotypic and chemotypic diversity of Neotyphodium endophytes in tall fescue from Greece. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 78 (16), 5501-5510 doi:10.1128/AEM.01084-12.

Charlton, N. D., Craven, K. D., Mittal, S., Hopkins, A. A. & Young, C. A. (2012). Epichloë canadensis, a new interspecific epichloid hybrid symbiotic with Canada wildrye (Elymus canadensis). Mycologia, 104 (5), 1187-1199 doi:10.3852/11-403.

Dierking, R.M., Young, C. A. & Kallenbach, R. L. (2012). Mediterranean and Continental tall fescue: I. Effects of endophyte status on leaf extension, proline, mono- and disaccharides, fructan, and freezing survivability. Crop Science, 52 (1), 451-459 doi:10.2135/cropsci2011.03.0159.

Iannone, L. J., Novas, M. V., Young, C. A., De Battista, J. P. & Schardl, C. L. (2012). Endophytes of native grasses from South America: Biodiversity and ecology. Fungal Ecology, 5 (3), 357–363 doi:10.1016/j.funeco.2011.05.007.

Schardl, C. L., Young, C. A., Faulkner, J. R., Florea, S. & Pan, J. (2012). Chemotypic diversity of epichloae, fungal symbiontsof grasses. Fungal Ecology, 5 (3), 331-344 doi:10.1016/j.funeco.2011.04.005.

Interrante, S. M., Singh, R., Islam, M. A., Stein, J., Young, C. A. & Butler, T. J. (2011). Effectiveness of Sinorhizobium inoculants on annual medics. Crop Science, 51 (5), 2249-2255 doi: 10.2135/cropsci2011.02.0076.

Fleetwood, D. J., Khan, A. K., Johnson, R. D., Young, C. A., Mittal, S., Wrenn, R. E., Hesse, U., Foster, S. J., Schardl, C. L. & Scott, B. (2011). Abundant degenerate miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements in genomes of epichloid fungal endophytes of grasses. Genome Biology and Evolution, 3 (1), 1253–1264 doi:10.1093/gbe/evr098.

Young, C. A. & Hopkins, A. A. (2011). Fungal endophytes of Elymus canadensis. United States Patent, US 7892813 B2.

Hopkins, A. A., Young, C. A., Butler, T. J., & Bouton, J. H. (2011). Registration of ‘Texoma’ MaxQ II Tall Fescue . Journal of Plant Registrations, 5 (1)14-18 (Reg. No. CV-99; PI 659316).

Ghimire, S. R., Rudgers, J., Charlton, N. D., Young, C. A. & Craven, K. D. (2011). Prevalence of an intraspecific Neotyphodium hybrid in natural populations of stout wood reed (Cinna arundinacea L.) from eastern North America. Mycologia, 103 (1), 75-84 doi:10.3852/10-154 .

Arif, M., Marek, S. M., Ochoa Corona, F. M., & Young, C. A. (2010). PCR detection and identification of Phymatotrichopsis omnivora-abstract. In 2010 American Phytopathological Society Annual Meeting, August 7-11 .Charlotte, N. C.: The American Phytopathological Society.

Butler, T. J., Young, C. A., Malinowski, D. P., & Widdup, K. (2010). Annual medics (Medicago sp) for the Southern Great Plains of the USA (abstract). In Proceedings 6th Annual International Symposium on the Molecular Breeding of Forage and Turf .Buenos Aires, Argentina: International Herbage Seed Group.

Singe, R., Interrante, S. M., Butler, T. J., & Young, C. A. (2010). Compaison of genetic diversity and symbiotic efficiency of commercial and indigenous Rhizobia from nodules of annual medics grown in different soil pH (abstract). In Proceedings American Forage and Grassland Council Conference Volume 19 2010 Springfield, Mo .Georgetown, Tx: American Forage and Grassland Council.

Butler, T. J., Interrante, S. M., Singe, R., Young, C. A., & Malinowski, D. P. (2010). Evaluation of annual medics for Rhizobia specificity, forage yield, seed production and hard seed (abstract). In Proceedings American Forage and Grassland Council Conference Volume 19 Springfield, Mo .Georgetown, Tx: American Forage and Grassland Council.

Young, C. A., Mysore, K. S., & Marek, S. M. (In Press).Phymatotrichopsis root rot. Compendium for Alfalfa disease. .

Young, C. A., & Wilkinson, H. H. (2010). Epichloë endophytes: models of an ecological strategy. In Borkovich,K.A.,Ebbole,D.J.,Momany,M. (Eds.), Cellular and Molecular Biology of Filamentous Fungi. U.S.A.: John Wiley and Sons,Inc..

Hopkins, A. A., Young, C. A., Panaccione, D. G., Simpson, W. R., Mittal, S. & Bouton, J. H. (2010). Agronomic performance and lamb healthamong several tall fescue novel endophytecombinations in the South-Central USA. Crop Science, 50 (4), 1552-1561 DOI:10.2135/cropsci2009.08.0473.

Uppalapati, S. R., Young, C. A., Marek, S. M. & Mysore, K. S. (2010). Phymatotrichum (cotton) root rot caused by Phymatotrichopsis omnivora: retrospects and prospects. Molecular Plant Pathology, 11 (3), 325-334 doi:10.1111/j.1364-3703.2010.00616.x.

Young, C. A. (2010). Cool-season grasses and their fungal companions. Ag News and Views, 28 (1), 4.

Scott, B., Wrenn, R. E. , May, K., Takemoto, D., Young, C. A., Tanaka, A., Fleetwood, D. J. , & Johnson, R. D. (2009). Regulation and functional analysis of bioprotective metabolite genes from the grass symbiont Epichloe festucae. In Gisi, U.,Chet, I.,Gullino, M. L.(Eds.), Recent Developments in Management of Plant Diseases/ Plant Pathology in the 21st Century: Volume 1-part 3. (pp. 199-223). New York, New York: Springer.

Young, C. A. (2009). Bioprotective secondary metabolites from fungal endophytes of cool season grasses(abstract). In American Phytopathology Society Annual Meeting (pp. S152). Portland, Oregon: American Phytopathology Society.

Young, C. A., Mittal, S. , Trammell, L., & Hopkins, A. A. (2009). Epichloë endophytes from cool season grass germplasm(abstract). In American Phytopathology Society Annual Meeting (pp. S147). .

Young, C. A., Tapper, B. A., May, K., Moon, C. D., Schardl, C. L., & Scott, B. (2009). Indole-diterpene biosynthetic capability of epichloë endophytes as predicted by ltm gene analysis. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 75 (7), 2200-2211 DOI:10.1128/AEM.00953-08.

Saha, M. C., Young, C. A. & Hopkins, A. A. (2009). Genetic variation within and among wildrye (Elymus canadensis and E. virginicus) populations from the Southern Great Plains. Crop Science, 49 (3), 913-922 DOI:10.2135/cropsci2008.04.0239.

Saikia, S., Nicholson, M. J., Young, C. A., Parker, E. J., & Scott, B. (2008). The genetic basis for indole-diterpene chemical diversity in filamentous fungi. Mycological Research, 112 (2), 184-199 DOI:10.1016/j.mycres.2007.06.015.

Burr, K. , Mittal, S. , Hopkins, A. A., & Young, C. A. (2007). Characterization of fungal endophytes present in Elymus canadensis (Canada wildrye)(abstract). In Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Fungal Endophytes of Grasses Grassland Research and Practice (pp. 473-476). Christ Church,New Zealand: New Zealand Grassland Association.

Scott, B., Takemoto, D., Tanaka, A., Young, C. A., Bryant, M. K., & May, J. K. (2007). Functional analysis of the Epichloë festucae-perennial ryegrass symbiosis(abstract). In Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Fungal Endophytes of Grasses Grassland Research and Practice (pp. 433-441). Christ Church,New Zealand: New Zealand Grassland Association.

Young, C. A., Felitti, S., Shields, K., Spangenberg, G., Johnson, R. D., Bryan, G. T., Saikia, S., & Scott, B. (2006). A complex gene cluster for indole-diterpene biosynthesis in the grass endophyte Neotyphodium lolii. Fungal Genetics and Biology, 43 (10), 679-693 DOI:10.1016/j.fgb.2006.04.004.